Category: Uncategorized

Christian Game-ism

Editor’s note: As usual, opinions of Guild members do not reflect the position of the Guild as a whole. As an organization, we neither condemn nor endorse any given entertainment product. However, neither do we discourage members from offering their own opinions.

What makes a game “Christian?”


If I handed you a rock and said, “Here you go, this is a Christian rock.” You would likely respond with, “How can a rock be Christian?” Yet if I were to hand you a DVD, CD, video game, or book, then said the same thing about those items, you would not question my meaning like with the rock. The question at hand is “why?” I suggest that it is the understanding of the intent of the item. Christian entertainment is by definition understood to be influenced by Christian ideology. This leads us to another question, “Can a rock sculpture be Christian?” If we can agree that it’s the intent that allows the title “Christian” to be applied to inanimate objects, then I would say yes. The rock sculpture can be a Christian sculpture. Let’s go back to the rock at the beginning. If I handed you that rock and said, “This is a Christian rock because we’re going to build a church with it.” Now, the intent of the rock is to create a building that is supposed to exemplify Jesus and Christian doctrine. I, for one, would say okay. Like the sculpture, I can now agree this rock is a Christian rock, through its intent and purpose. Before you giggle, remember what Jesus said in Luke 19:40 that even the rocks would cry out. Read more

Complex Firearms for D20 Games

Public domain photo. Source:

There are several concepts that need to be understood for proper potential damage dice for a given firearm system. There are two kinds of cavities that are created when a projectile hits a body. The wound cavity is created by the track of the projectile damaging tissue as it travels through the body, creating a hole or tunnel as it goes, and in some cases creating multiple tunnels of damage if it fragments. The second is the Stretch cavity which is created when the shockwave of the projectile hits the body and moves tissues around like throwing a rock into a pool of water. For handguns, there are many impressive gel tests that show very dramatic stretch cavities using slow motion video. However the stretch cavity does not actually damage any tissue. Only the wound cavity damages tissue. Tissue damage causes bleeding, and when there is enough blood loss, the target is stopped. Larger projectiles make larger holes and thus more blood loss potential.

The shock of the stretch cavity can, in rare cases, cause enough shock to the nerves that it can render the target unconscious. Hydrostatic shock, where the stretch cavity actually causes tissue damage, does not occur with any tissue damaging results unless the projectile has enough foot-pounds of energy when it strikes the body, depending on the size of the body being hit. Energy is mass times velocity squared. Heavier projectiles have more mass, but require more pressure to give them velocity. The smaller the target, the larger the stretch cavity, the more potential for hydrostatic shock. This is not easy to translate into game terms. However, as a general rule, in Tiny targets, Firearms always product Hydrostatic shock. In size Small, 400 foot-pounds of energy would be needed to create hydrostatic shock (in hunting terms, this would be Class I game—Rabbits, Badgers, Coyotes, Antelope, etc.). In size Medium, 700 foot-pounds of energy would be needed to create hydrostatic shock (Class II game—Cougars, Deer, Antelope, Black Bear, Humans, etc.). In size Large, 1200 foot-pounds of energy would be needed to create hydrostatic shock (Class III game—Brown Bear, Mountain Sheep, Elk, Caribou, Moose, etc.). In size Huge, 1200 foot-pounds or more energy would be needed to create hydrostatic shock (Class IV game—Elephant, Hippo, Dragon, etc.)

The next issue is entropy; the projectile slows down, thus reducing its energy, as it travels. All Centerfire Rifles do Hydrostatic shock (unless they are chambered in a pistol cartridge) at under 100 yards. Some handguns under 30 feet can also do it. Beyond 100 yards, it depends on the cartridge being used (higher pressure has more velocity; heavier projectiles have less velocity but more mass) and the barrel length (the longer the barrel the more velocity). Things like barometric pressure, elevation, and so forth also play a role in the velocity of the projectile, and therefore the energy of the projectile when it impacts its target. The further out a target is, the less energy the projectile has to apply to the body. The furthest away, unless using specialty optics, that a good shooter can shoot effectively is 1200 yards. Game hunters and guides recommend you not take a shot with any standard cartridge rifles at anything further out than 400 yards. In order to have a humane kill, the magic number is 1200 foot-pounds of energy. If your platform and cartridge being used can’t produce that at the range you are considering taking the shot at, don’t take the shot.

There are literally thousands of developed loadings for a given cartridge. To simplify things, though, there are three basic bullet types: Standard loading for most cartridges is a full metal jacket bullet. Expanding, in most cases, is a jacketed hollow point or soft point round. Armor penetrating is typically an iron core round. The standard loading is assumed in the following pages. Expanding bullets will do an extra die of damage in exchange for a 25% penalty to the Accuracy Range increment. These are usually ‘defense’ rounds in Handguns. Armor Penetrating adds a bonus to hit to represent the negation of armor class and an identical penalty to damage to reflect the energy lost punching through the armor. In most cases, a flat +4 to hit and -4 to damage should be assessed. If the armor has a Damage Reduction rating (DR), you ignore it. Yes, they are nasty! But they are also dangerous, as they ignore Hardness of objects. Don’t use them inside a space ship!

Taking all these factors into consideration, we can lay some ground rules in determining weapon damage for Firearms in simple fashion. First, Rimfire Rifles, Black Powder, Pistols, Shotguns, and Centerfire Rifles have different pressure thresholds, and so they are separated. Rimfire uses a flash compound in the rim of the case that ignites the powder. Because of this, the weaker case does not allow for higher pressure. Centerfire uses a primer cup held in a primer pocket in the case. This allows for much higher pressure. Black Powder doesn’t use primer at all. Second we can simply utilize generic data on cartridges in “standard” platforms for that cartridge off Wikipedia.

What follows is a “simple” way to determine damage and range for a given “standard” platform for a given firearm cartridge using Pathfinder Second Edition rules. I took the “normal” top and bottom end cartridges to calculate the range increments and rounded the numbers off to make is simpler. There are more powerful, and less powerful, guns than what I used to determine the mean, but I kept it to what would be considered common firearms. For example a 500 S&W Magnum does 5000 J of energy out of pistol, and a 50 BMG rifle does 21,000 J of energy… and they cost between $5 and $20 per shot to fire… so they are not very common, and really mess with the numbers if you include such beasts.

All Firearms have a Damage Range increment, in addition to the normal Accuracy Range Increment other ranged weapons have. The Accuracy Range increment can be improved with the use of an Optic system.

Firearms Range Increments, Table 1

Weapon Type Accuracy Range Increment* Damage Range Increment
Centerfire Rifle 300 feet / 100 m 300 feet / 100 m
Rimfire Rifle 150 feet / 50 m 150 feet / 50 m
Handguns 75 feet / 25 m 30 feet / 10 m
Shotguns (scatter) 50 feet / 15 m 10 feet / 3 m
Smoothbore Black Powder guns 75 feet / 25 m 30 feet / 10 m
Rifled Black Powder guns 225 feet / 70 m 50 feet / 15 m
Black Powder Scatter guns 50 feet / 15 m 10 feet / 3 m

At the first Damage Range increment, damage is normal. But for each Damage Range increment out, the firearm does one damage die less. If it is down to its last die, the die type reduces by one die type for each Damage Range increment after that; with a minimum of 1 damage.

*Hollow point and soft point bullets give a 25% penalty to the Accuracy Range Increment


A Scope adds the Volley 30 trait to the weapon. In Pathfinder 2e terms, you have a -2 penalty to use the gun if your target is within 30 feet / 10 m of you. The Accuracy Range Increment is increased by 33%.

Red Dot systems do not impose the Volley penalty, but only increase the Accuracy Range Increment by 10%.

Optics may also grant features such as night vision or recording capabilities, depending on the system used.

The bigger the caliber of projectile, the larger the wound cavity, reflected in a larger damage die size:

Firearms Damage Dice, Table 2-1

Imperial Caliber Metric Caliber Damage Die
.17 – .236 4.318 – 5.994 d4
.237 – .302 6.02 – 7.671 d6
.303 – .368 7.697 – 9.347 d8
.369 – .434 9.373 – 11.024 d10
.435 – .50 11.05 – 12.7 d12

Most black powder pistols are .36 or .45 caliber (d8 or d12). Most black powder rifles are .45, .50, or .58 caliber (d12).

 The higher the energy, the more dice are rolled:

Rifle Damage Dice, Table 2-2a

Energy in Joules Dice**
< 2000 J 2d
2000 J / Black Powder 3d
3000 J 4d
4000 J 5d
5000+ J 6d

Pistol Damage Dice, Table 2-2b

Energy in Joules Dice**
< 300 J 1d
300 J 2d
500 J / Black Powder 3d
900 J 4d
1300 J 5d
1500+ J 6d

** Expanding bullets get an extra die of damage.

Shotguns shoot multiple projectiles and are treated differently as they are designed for short ranges, and therefore the size of the shot determines the number of dice:

Shotgun Damage Dice, Table 2-3

Shot Size Dice
#000 Buck 5d12
#00 Buck 5d10
#0 Buck 5d8
#2 Buck 5d6
#4 Buck / Black Powder Scatterguns 5d4
#5 Shot 4d4
#7½ Shot 2d6
#8 & #9 Shot 1d6

If only one die is being rolled, it may ‘explode,’ meaning that if the highest possible result is rolled, the die is rolled again, and the result is added to the original roll. This can continue until the highest possible result is not rolled.

To determine the damage and range of a specific gun, we simply look up a cartridge on the Wikipedia and compare its caliber, type (centerfire, Rimfire, or handgun) and energy. Use the highest rated energy loading on the page. For example, I’ll look up 7.7×58 Arisaka on Wikipedia. It has a diameter of 7.92mm. It’s highest rated energy listed is 3136 J. So looking at our lists above, it uses 4d8. Not too shabby. So instead of creating long laundry lists of damage, we’ve created a formula to convert any firearm to Pathfinder 2e damage.

Here are some more common cartridges converted:

A standard 5.56 NATO (AR15/M16) would use d4s, and at 1859 J it gets 2 of them (they can also fire .223 Remington at 1814 J, still only 2 dice).

A 9×19 Parabellum (9mm, 9mm Luger) +P Pistol uses d8s and at 617 J uses 3 of them. This covers the Beretta M9 (FS92), the standard NATO side arm from 1985 until 2017. Also the Sig Sauer P320 (RX17) from 2017 to Present. It is the most popular round next to .22 Long Rifle. The Glock Model 19 is the most popular handgun in this cartridge. Portland Police use Glock Model 17, as do all Federal Agencies except the Border Patrol and NCIS.

A .357 Magnum Pistol uses d8s and at 964 J uses 4 of them. Examples include the Smith & Wesson Model 27/28, Colt Python, and Ruger Security Six. A lot of State Police agencies and the Border Patrol switched from S&W 10s to S&W 28s in 1955 and used them until 1992.

A .357 SIG Pistol uses d8s and at 978 J uses 4 of them. The Glock Model 31 is the standard U.S. Border Patrol and NCIS sidearm.

7.62×39 (AK47/SKS) Rifles use d8s (0.310 caliber projectiles) and at 2108 J uses 3 of them.

The .38 Special +P Pistol (S&W Model 10 was the standard Cop gun from 1899 until 1990) uses d8s and at 476 J gets 2 dice.

The .40 S&W Pistol uses d10s and at 797 J uses 3 of them. Most cop guns are Glock Model 22.

.45 ACP (Colt 1911) uses d12s and at 796 J uses 3 of them. This was the U.S. Forces Pistol from 1911 until 1986 with 8+1 rounds. A smaller 6+1 round Officers’ version was carried by U.S. Forces Officers from 1955 until 1985. A 7+1 Round Commander version was available for Civilians.

A .270 Winchester rifle uses a d6 and at 4006 J uses 5 of them.

30-06 rifle uses d8 and at 4042 J uses 5 of them.

M1 Garand is a 30-06, but must be loaded to under 2800 J so they get 3 dice (use of regular 30-06 ammo will blow the op rod off the gun and damage it).

7.62×45 NATO rifles (M14) use d8s and at 3560 J uses 4 of them (they can also fire .308 Winchester at 3700 J, but still only 4 dice)

.22 Long Rifle in a Rifle gets d4s and at 277 J gets 2 of them, but only 1 in a Pistol.

Note: There are more powerful guns, but this keeps them capped for playability.

Additional Rules

Report Shock: When you fire a firearm without a suppressor, Report Shock takes place. The rules may vary depending on the game system, but by and large, if you are within 25 feet of the muzzle of an unsuppressed firearm, you must make a Fortitude, Constitution, or equivalent saving throw. In Pathfinder 2e, it would be a Simple DC for your level at Good Difficulty. If you succeed, nothing happens. If you fail, you take 1d8 points of non-lethal damage, and are both deaf and stunned for one round. If you are already deaf or have hearing protection in place, you are immune.

Overpenetration: If a target’s hit points are reduced to zero and there is still damage left over, the bullet “blows through” the target and may strike a creature or object behind the target. The original attack roll is used to see if the round hits, and if so, the remainder of the damage roll is applied to that target.

Recoil: Modern and Black Powder Firearms generate Recoil after each shot. A cumulative -1 penalty to hit is applied per shot fired to the next shot. This lasts until the shooter takes the Readjust action, Moves, or performs some other Action other than firing the weapon. However, Firearms are Agile weapons. In Pathfinder 2e, Recoil offsets the Agile trait when doing a multi-attack. If you do not do some other action prior to firing, the penalty continues to accumulate across combat rounds.

For instance, in Round 1, you fire three times. The first shot has no penalty. The second is at -5 (-4 for an Agile weapon and -1 for Recoil). The third shot is at -10 (-8 for Agile weapon, -2 for Recoil). In Round 2, you keep firing. The fourth shot is -3 for Recoil. The fifth at -8 due to -4 Recoil and -4 Agile weapon. The sixth is -13, and so forth. In Round 3, you take the Readjust action, which clears the Recoil penalty.

Reloading: Reloading is an Interact action and may require more than one action, depending on the weapon system being used. Most magazine-fed systems take two actions to reload: one to draw the magazine while ejecting the old one, and one to load the magazine and charge the weapon system.

Non-detachable magazine systems take a number of actions equal to 2 per cartridge being loaded, as do swing-out revolvers when not using a speed loader. Using a speed loader device takes only 3 actions to reload. Single Action Revolvers take an additional action per cartridge to eject spent cartridges through the load gate.

Modern single shot systems take three actions to reload: One to eject the spent cartridge, one to ready the new cartridge, and one to load the cartridge.

Black Powder weapons take 10 actions to reload. This time is cut in half if they have pre-measured powder wraps and a wad and ball block. Paper cartridge and cap & ball weapons take five actions to reload per chamber. Non-cap (primitive) Black Powder weapons such as wheel-locks take an additional two actions to ready the pan unless the user employs a single-action fire ability or spell to ignite the pan.

Sewers and Such

Someone once wrote that good Game Masters seem to know a little bit about everything. If it’s not obvious, this is because they need to know how the world works so they can make their own game settings seem real. I know this first-hand from years of running fantasy campaigns. At one point or another, I found myself digging into the details of agriculture, mining, free diving, sailing, carpentry, sheep breeding, the wool trade, and a dozen other subjects that I never imagined I would research. Of course, this is not limited to fantasy role-playing. When running Gamma World or some other apocalyptic game, a good GM probably needs to know a little about modern firearms, lasers, nuclear radiation, mutation, the ecology of a wasteland, etc. Running Traveller or another sci-fi game, the GM should probably know something about the vacuum of space, space travel, planets, stars, asteroids, comets, gravity, etc. You get the idea.

Not long ago, M.J. Young of the Christian Gamers Guild penned a few short articles on very generic topics, like waterways, country roads, and cities. Though at face value they seem too generic to be helpful, the articles can be surprisingly useful to GMs. Great GMs might know a little about everything, but they don’t start off like that. Everyone needs to pick up basics from someplace, and MJ’s articles were great for anyone not already knowledgeable about those topics. Even veterans can glean some points that they had never considered.

In this brief article, I‘ll touch on another topic that seems like it could be useful to many GMs—sewers. I cannot count the times that I’ve seen modules or homemade adventures with wererats skulking through labyrinthine sewers. Strangely, though I’ve been playing for over thirty-five years, I never played in or ran such an adventure. I recently decided to add a sewer setting to an ongoing campaign, but I realized that I had to find out something about sewers first. As with most things, one topic connects to many others. In this case, I found it tough to examine sewer systems without simultaneously looking at water supplies and plumbing. Read more

2019 at the Christian Gamers Guild Reviewed

Last December we published Thirteen Months in Review, in which I attempted to index everything that had been posted to the site in the previous thirteen months–the time from when our previous index, Overview of the Articles on the New Christian Gamers Guild Website, had been published.  I am now attempting once again to summarize, this time a calendar year of material, for those who missed something or want to find something they remember. Read more

New Home for the CGG!

Yahoo recently announced that the Groups service that the CGG has relied upon for years to manage our main email discussion list is being scaled back. Archives, photos, databases, polls, etc will be deleted come December. Since we do, in fact, use most of those features, we decided to move over to, which not only has a less Orwellian privacy policy, it also seems to generally run better.

Naturally, several people have raised the question “Why stick with email? Wouldn’t Facebook/Reddit/Discord/a forum/other service-du-jour be better?” The reason’s are three-fold: First, email has staying power. It’s unlikely to go away in the foreseeable future. Discord may go the distance, or it may fade into obscurity like ICQ. Google+ ceased to exist, and any given other service probably will, too, in the long-term. But even if itself goes away, our inboxes remain, and we can find a new service or set one up ourselves if necessary.

Second, email is passive. If I had to remember to go to a forum or a Facebook group every day or every week, even as a Board member, I’d eventually lose the habit. Others would, too, and before you know it, CGG would be as dead as Fans for Christ. Since the Guild’s messages come directly to me, even if I ignore it for a time, eventually I’ll remember to look in that CGG folder in my email account. That’s probably the primary reason the CGG is still around after all these years—it takes very minimal effort to stay connected to it.

Finally, there are plenty of other groups that cover those other venues. Want to talk with Christian gamers on Facebook? Check out The Tavern. Is Discord your thing? Saving the Game has a vibrant community there. CGG’s primary venue has always been email, and for the time being, that continues.

Of course, that doesn’t mean we’re ignoring other channels. Grant, of the aforementioned Saving the Game, did set up a CGG Discord channel for us (invite available on request. Email for a link), and there are two Reddit communities operated by a CGG member: and

Anyway, as always, membership in the CGG is open to all, and it’s as simple as joining the discussion list. You can do that via email by sending a message to or by going to the group’s web portal at

As a consequence of the move, if you subscribed to the CGG at some time in the past but had stopped receiving email for one reason or another, you may have received an unexpected welcome email and a spate of new conversations starters from the new distribution list. Obviously that’s been unwelcome to some people because I’ve had about a dozen notifications of people immediately leaving the new list. So allow me to apologize—it’s never our intention to spam anyone, but mechanized processes definitely do have their downside in that regard. Of course, those who are uninterested in the list probably are equally uninterested in coming here for an explanation…

Manage Your Factions with Mind Mapping

I was in a conversation recently about how Game Masters manage factions—how do you track their activities and relationships? I use a technique of mind mapping. If you’ve never heard this term, a mind map is a drawing that abstracts the relationships between people, organizations, nations, etc into a spatial diagram. It can look similar to a flowchart, but it doesn’t necessarily progress to an end point. Here’s a sample of a map I used for planning a long-ago Unknown Armies campaign:

Read more

Our Friends and Allies — August 2019

The Christian Gamers Guild is not alone in our efforts to build faith communities among the geek sub-cultures. Numerous other organizations, ministries, and individuals are also doing valuable and powerful work among Trekkies, roleplayers, cosplayers, video gamers, and many other segments. As the nature of Internet communities is to change constantly, we’ll try to continue updating and republishing this list twice a year to keep it fresh.

This time around, it’s categorized by type so you can more easily find the kinds of groups and ministers you’re interested in. Some entries fall into multiple entries, of course, so I’ll try to put them in their most salient category, with a note about other things they do.

Although several of these organizations produce (or are) products, the Christian Gamers Guild does not endorse any of them, in accordance with our policy to neither condemn nor endorse any particular game product (and by extension, any other organization, ministry or service). If you have any questions about the appropriateness of any product for yourself, your family, or your gaming group, it is up to you to investigate and decide. Read more

An Invitation to Contribute to the CGG Site

Today happens to be the fifth Tuesday of April, and that actually creates a hole in our article schedule.

I write two series, the Faith in Play series that appears on the first Tuesday of every month, and the RPG-ology series that runs the third week.  Other members of the Christian Gamers Guild typically fill the second and fourth weeks, most notably Mike Garcia with his game stories and special rules and setting information, but we’ve also had quite a few contributions from R. C. Brooks and his D20 game setting, guild board member Eric Vandenhende, guild president Reverend Rodney Barnes, and our webmaster Bryan Ray.  They all have real-world jobs, though, so it’s understandable that they don’t keep pace with someone who spends nearly all his time writing and reading things others have written.  It thus sometimes happens that there’s nothing to post.

I’m writing this not merely to fill a slot that would otherwise have been empty, but to recognize—and to get you to recognize—that we welcome contributions from other writers.  We had a wonderful piece at the end of last month from Stephen Taylor, not a member of the guild but head of Games for All in the United Kingdom, about how to launch and run a games or hobby ministry.  We would love to have more perspectives on more related subjects from more Christians, and if you have something to say about faith and leisure activities, and don’t know where to say it, the invitation is extended to you to give us your idea here and we’ll try to slate you into one of our openings.

Probably the easiest way to let us know you’re interested is to post a comment at the bottom of this page; we’ll see that you commented, and follow up somehow.  You can also reach either Bryan or me through Facebook, such as messaging the Christian Gamers Guild’s Facebook page or contacting us personally.

I look forward to reading your thoughts, and I’m sure our many readers do so as well.

Yolo Swaggins

This is the backstory for a character in my house rules game. It’s much more detailed that the average backstory, but then a character with a name like Yolo Swaggins, Master of Swag End, demands some explanation.

In a hole in the ground there lives a hobbit er, hafling*. It is a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell; he could only wish it was a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it rotting or molding: it was a halfling-hole, which should have meant comfort. But it didn’t. It had a warped round door like a porthole, painted with peeling green paint, with a once shiny brass knob mostly in the middle. The door opened on to a tube-shaped hall like a tunnel: a once comfortable tunnel, with crumbling paneled walls, now stained with water marks, and floors of broken tile and moldy carpet, strewn with decrepit furniture, and lots and lots of pegs for hats and coats—though the halfling hated visitors. The tunnel wound on and on, meandering randomly into the side of the hill—The Hill, as all the people living there called it (though that didn’t really distinguish it from the other hills nearby as those residents referred to their hill as The Hill too)—and many little round doors, all in better shape than this one, opened out of it, first on one side and then on another. No going upstairs for the halfling: empty bedrooms, dirty bathrooms, damp cellars, moldy pantries (lots of these, though sadly there was little in any of them), musty wardrobes, counting rooms (he had whole empty rooms devoted to counting and storing his non-existent wealth), dirty kitchens, dim dining-rooms, all were on the same floor, and indeed on the same passage. The best rooms, which is not saying much, were all on the left-hand side (going in), for these were the only ones to have windows which at least let in the light, through deep-set round windows looking over his weedy garden and beyond, sloping down to the mere pond. Read more